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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549
________________________________________________
FORM 10-Q
_____________________________________________
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2020
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _______ to _______
Commission File Number: 001-38678
________________________________________________
UPWORK INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
________________________________________________

Delaware46-4337682
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
2625 Augustine Drive, Suite 601
Santa Clara,California95054
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(650) 316-7500
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
_______________________________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading SymbolName of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per shareUPWKThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
_______________________________________________
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No ☒
As of July 31, 2020, there were 120,276,173 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
PART I—FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1.Financial Statements (Unaudited)
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations for the Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2020 and 2019
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity for the Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2020 and 2019
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Six Months Ended June 30, 2020 and 2019
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
Item 2.Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 3.Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 4.Controls and Procedures
PART II—OTHER INFORMATION
Item 1.Legal Proceedings
Item 1A.Risk Factors
Item 2.Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
Item 6.Exhibits
Signatures

Unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires, references in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (this “Quarterly Report” or “report”) to “Upwork,” “Company,” “our,” “us,” and “we” and similar references refer to Upwork Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries.



SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws. All statements contained in this Quarterly Report, other than statements of historical fact, including statements regarding our future operating results and financial position, our business strategy and plans, potential growth or growth prospects, future research and development, sales and marketing and general and administrative expenses, our objectives for future operations, and potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, or expectations regarding actions we may take in response to the pandemic, are forward-looking statements. Words such as “believes,” “may,” “will,” “estimates,” “potential,” “continues,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “expects,” “could,” “would,” “projects,” “plans,” “targets,” and variations of such words and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements.

We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections as of the date of this filing about future events and trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, short-term and long-term business operations and objectives, and financial needs. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those described in Part II, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” in this Quarterly Report and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Readers are urged to carefully review and consider the various disclosures made in this Quarterly Report and in other documents we file from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) that disclose risks and uncertainties that may affect our business. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for us to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties, and assumptions, the future events and circumstances discussed in this Quarterly Report may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements.
You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, performance, or achievements. In addition, the forward-looking statements in this Quarterly Report are made as of the date of this filing, and we do not undertake, and expressly disclaim any duty, to update such statements for any reason after the date of this Quarterly Report or to conform statements to actual results or revised expectations, except as required by law.
You should read this Quarterly Report and the documents that we reference herein and have filed with the SEC as exhibits to this Quarterly Report with the understanding that our actual future results, performance, and events and circumstances may be materially different from what we expect.


1


PART I—FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements.
UPWORK INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
(Unaudited)
June 30, 2020December 31, 2019
ASSETS
Current assets
Cash and cash equivalents$76,755  $48,392  
Marketable securities69,606  85,481  
Funds held in escrow, including funds in transit129,553  108,721  
Trade and client receivables – net of allowance of $2,075 and $2,215 as of June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively
33,230  30,156  
Prepaid expenses and other current assets9,009  7,885  
Total current assets318,153  280,635  
Property and equipment, net27,284  21,454  
Goodwill118,219  118,219  
Intangible assets, net2,001  3,335  
Operating lease asset21,645  21,908  
Other assets, noncurrent1,546  829  
Total assets$488,848  $446,380  
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Current liabilities
Accounts payable$5,180  $652  
Escrow funds payable129,553  108,721  
Debt, current7,594  7,584  
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities25,364  18,342  
Deferred revenue14,984  13,799  
Total current liabilities182,675  149,098  
Debt, noncurrent6,929  10,699  
Operating lease liability, noncurrent22,105  21,186  
Other liabilities, noncurrent6,996  5,973  
Total liabilities218,705  186,956  
Commitments and contingencies (Note 6)
Stockholders’ equity
Common stock, $0.0001 par value; 490,000,000 shares authorized as of June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019; 119,267,694 and 113,604,398 shares issued and outstanding as of June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively
12  11  
Additional paid-in capital463,133  431,370  
Accumulated deficit(193,002) (171,957) 
Total stockholders’ equity270,143  259,424  
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$488,848  $446,380  
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
2


UPWORK INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(In thousands, except per share data)
(Unaudited)

Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2020201920202019
Revenue$87,531  $73,783  $170,727  $142,259  
Cost of revenue25,408  21,588  48,893  42,713  
Gross profit62,123  52,195  121,834  99,546  
Operating expenses
Research and development20,547  15,696  39,895  31,496  
Sales and marketing34,440  24,479  65,118  44,997  
General and administrative17,102  14,064  34,926  29,725  
Provision for transaction losses1,018  855  1,930  1,492  
Total operating expenses73,107  55,094  141,869  107,710  
Loss from operations(10,984) (2,899) (20,035) (8,164) 
Interest expense258  357  488  730  
Other (income) expense, net(248) (832) 483  (1,311) 
Loss before income taxes(10,994) (2,424) (21,006) (7,583) 
Income tax provision(30) (27) (39) (28) 
Net loss$(11,024) $(2,451) $(21,045) $(7,611) 
Net loss per share, basic and diluted$(0.09) $(0.02) $(0.18) $(0.07) 
Weighted-average shares used to compute net loss per share, basic and diluted116,524  108,683  115,321  107,665  

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

3


UPWORK INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(In thousands, except share amounts)
(Unaudited)

Three Months Ended June 30, 2020Common StockAdditional Paid-in CapitalAccumulated
Deficit
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
SharesAmount
Balances as of March 31, 2020114,866,938  $11  $440,703  $(181,978) $258,736  
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options3,697,663  1  12,844  —  12,845  
Stock-based compensation expense—  —  6,866  —  6,866  
Issuance of common stock for settlement of RSUs438,849  —  —  —    
Tides Foundation common stock warrant expense and other—  —  59  —  59  
Issuance of common stock in connection with employee stock purchase plan264,244  —  2,661  —  2,661  
Net loss—  —  —  (11,024) (11,024) 
Balances as of June 30, 2020119,267,694  $12  $463,133  $(193,002) $270,143  


Three Months Ended June 30, 2019Common StockAdditional Paid-in CapitalAccumulated
Deficit
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
SharesAmount
Balances as of March 31, 2019106,729,758  $11  $392,188  $(160,458) $231,741  
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options and common stock warrants3,645,434  —  9,583  —  9,583  
Stock-based compensation expense—  —  2,528  —  2,528  
Issuance of common stock for settlement of RSUs53,030  —  —  —    
Issuance of common stock in connection with employee stock purchase plan280,308  —  3,577  —  3,577  
Net loss—  —  —  (2,451) (2,451) 
Balances as of June 30, 2019110,708,530  $11  $407,876  $(162,909) $244,978  


4



Six Months Ended June 30, 2020Common StockAdditional Paid-in CapitalAccumulated DeficitTotal Stockholders’ Equity
SharesAmount
Balances as of December 31, 2019113,604,398  $11  $431,370  $(171,957) $259,424  
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options4,647,550  1  16,009  —  16,010  
Stock-based compensation expense—  —  12,193  —  12,193  
Issuance of common stock for settlement of RSUs751,502  —  —  —    
Tides Foundation common stock warrant expense and other—  —  900  —  900  
Issuance of common stock in connection with employee stock purchase plan264,244  —  2,661  —  2,661  
Net loss—  —  —  (21,045) (21,045) 
Balances as of June 30, 2020119,267,694  $12  $463,133  $(193,002) $270,143  


Six Months Ended June 30, 2019Common StockAdditional Paid-in CapitalAccumulated DeficitTotal Stockholders’ Equity
SharesAmount
Balances as of December 31, 2018106,454,321  $11  $387,233  $(143,499) $243,745  
Cumulative effect adjustment from adoption of new accounting pronouncement—  —  —  (11,799) (11,799) 
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options and common stock warrants3,918,539  —  10,350  —  10,350  
Stock-based compensation expense—  —  6,716  —  6,716  
Issuance of common stock for settlement of RSUs55,362  —  —  —    
Issuance of common stock in connection with employee stock purchase plan280,308  —  3,577  —  3,577  
Net loss—  —  —  (7,611) (7,611) 
Balances as of June 30, 2019110,708,530  $11  $407,876  $(162,909) $244,978  

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

5


UPWORK INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)
Six Months Ended June 30,
20202019
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:
Net loss$(21,045) $(7,611) 
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:
Provision for transaction losses1,606  1,038  
Depreciation and amortization4,786  2,827  
Amortization of debt issuance costs26  26  
Amortization of discount on purchases of marketable securities(257) (665) 
Amortization of operating lease asset1,945  2,177  
Tides Foundation common stock warrant expense376  377  
Stock-based compensation expense12,671  6,926  
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Trade and client receivables(4,773) (29,978) 
Prepaid expenses and other assets(968) (585) 
Operating lease liability(925) (998) 
Accounts payable4,403  (589) 
Accrued expenses and other liabilities7,232  (2,088) 
Deferred revenue1,585  1,317  
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities6,662  (27,826) 
CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES:
Purchases of marketable securities(47,748) (86,567) 
Proceeds from maturities of marketable securities64,000  24,800  
Purchases of property and equipment(5,627) (7,435) 
Internal-use software and platform development costs(3,559) (2,182) 
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities7,066  (71,384) 
CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES:
Changes in escrow funds payable20,832  20,116  
Proceeds from exercises of stock options and common stock warrants16,010  10,340  
Proceeds from borrowings on debt18,000  50,000  
Repayment of debt(21,786) (26,893) 
Proceeds from employee stock purchase plan2,661  3,577  
Net cash provided by financing activities35,717  57,140  
NET CHANGE IN CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS, AND RESTRICTED CASH49,445  (42,070) 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash—beginning of period159,603  230,067  
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash—end of period$209,048  $187,997  
SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURE OF CASH FLOW INFORMATION:
Cash paid for interest$499  $714  
SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURES OF NON-CASH INVESTING ACTIVITIES:
Property and equipment purchased but not yet paid$478  $3,140  
Internal-use software and platform development costs incurred but not yet paid$170  $  
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

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UPWORK INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Unaudited)
Note 1—Description of Business
Upwork Inc. (the “Company” or “Upwork”) operates an online talent solution that enables businesses (“clients”) to find and work with highly-skilled independent professionals (“freelancers,” and, together with clients, “users”). The Company was originally incorporated in the state of Delaware in December 2013 prior to and in connection with the combination (the “Elance-oDesk Combination”) of Elance, Inc. (“Elance”) and oDesk Corporation (“oDesk”). The Company changed its name to Elance-oDesk, Inc. shortly before the Elance-oDesk Combination in March 2014, and later to Upwork Inc. in May 2015. In 2015, the Company relaunched as Upwork and commenced consolidation of its two operating platforms. In 2016, following completion of the platform consolidation, the Company began operating under a single platform. The Company is currently headquartered in Santa Clara, California.
Unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires, the terms “Upwork” and the “Company” in these notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements refer to Upwork and its wholly-owned subsidiaries.

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Note 2—Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”) and applicable rules and regulations of the SEC regarding interim financial reporting. Certain information and note disclosures normally included in the financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. As such, the information included in this Quarterly Report should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 (the “Annual Report”), filed with the SEC on March 2, 2020.
The condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2019 included herein was derived from the audited financial statements as of that date, but does not include all disclosures including notes required by U.S. GAAP.
The condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Upwork Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all normal recurring adjustments necessary to present fairly the financial position, results of operations, changes in stockholders’ equity and cash flows for the interim periods, but do not purport to be indicative of the results of operations or financial condition to be anticipated for the full year ending December 31, 2020.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make certain estimates, judgments, and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the periods presented. Such estimates include, but are not limited to: the useful lives of assets; assessment of the recoverability of long-lived assets; goodwill impairment; standalone selling price of material rights and the period of time over which to defer and recognize the consideration allocated to the material rights; allowance for doubtful accounts; liabilities relating to transaction losses; the valuation of warrants; stock-based compensation; and accounting for income taxes. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that management believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. The Company evaluates its estimates, assumptions, and judgments on an ongoing basis using historical experience and other factors and revises them when facts and circumstances dictate.
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been uncertainty and disruption in the global economy. The Company is not aware of any specific event or circumstance that would require an update to its estimates or judgments or a revision of the carrying value of its assets or liabilities. These estimates may change as new events occur and additional information is obtained. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
Impacts of Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements on 2019 Interim Reporting
On December 31, 2019, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“Topic 606”), ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (“Topic 842”), and ASU No. 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash (“Topic 230”) effective as of January 1, 2019. As a result, interim results for reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2019 will differ from amounts previously reported on the Company’s quarterly reports on Form 10-Q. The following table summarizes the impacts of adopting these standards on the Company’s previously issued condensed consolidated statements of operations for

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the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 and condensed consolidated statement of cash flows for the six months ended June 30, 2019 (in thousands):
Balances,
Previously Issued
Topic
606
Topic
842 (1)
Topic
230
Balances,
as Reported
Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations for the Three Months Ended June 30, 2019
Revenue$74,256  $(473) $  $  $73,783  
Operating expense—General and administrative14,113    (49)   14,064  
Net loss(2,027) (473) 49    (2,451) 
Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations for the Six Months Ended June 30, 2019
Revenue$143,180  $(921) $  $  $142,259  
Operating expense—General and administrative29,790    (65)   29,725  
Net loss(6,755) (921) 65    (7,611) 
Net loss per share, basic and diluted(0.06) (0.01)     (0.07) 
Condensed Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows for the Six Months Ended June 30, 2019
Operating activities
Net loss$(6,755) $(921) $65  $  $(7,611) 
Amortization of operating lease asset    2,177    2,177  
Trade and client receivables(30,288) 310      (29,978) 
Prepaid expenses and other assets(701)   116    (585) 
Operating lease liability    (998)   (998) 
Accrued expenses and other liabilities(430) (298) (1,360)   (2,088) 
Deferred revenue408  909      1,317  
Investing activities—decrease (increase) in restricted cash150      (150)   
Financing activities—changes in funds held in escrow, including funds in transit(20,116)     20,116    
NET CHANGE IN CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS, AND RESTRICTED CASH(62,036)     19,966  (42,070) 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash—beginning of period129,128      100,939  230,067  
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash—end of period67,092      120,905  187,997  
(1) Amounts include other adjustments made in conjunction with the adoption of Topic 842.

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Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
The significant accounting policies applied in the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements, as disclosed in the Annual Report, are applied consistently in these unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements, except as noted below.
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. This standard changes the methodology for measuring credit losses on financial instruments and the timing of when such losses are recorded. The Company adopted ASU No. 2016-13 and related updates on January 1, 2020. The adoption did not have a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Intangibles—Goodwill and Others (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. ASU No. 2017-04 eliminates Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test, which measures a goodwill impairment loss by comparing the implied fair value of a reporting unit’s goodwill with the carrying amount of that goodwill. The Company adopted ASU No. 2017-04 on January 1, 2020. The adoption did not have a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework—Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement, which modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements. The Company adopted ASU No. 2018-13 on January 1, 2020. The adoption did not have a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-15, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other—Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract. ASU No. 2018-15 aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs in a cloud computing arrangement service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred for an internal-use software license. The Company adopted ASU No. 2018-15 on January 1, 2020 using the prospective adoption method. The adoption did not have a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
The Company has reviewed all other accounting pronouncements issued during the six months ended June 30, 2020 and concluded they were either not applicable or not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.


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Note 3—Revenue
Disaggregation of Revenue
See “Note 9—Segment and Geographical Information” for the Company’s revenue disaggregated by type of service and geographic area.
Remaining Performance Obligations
As of June 30, 2020, the Company had approximately $18.5 million of remaining performance obligations. The Company’s remaining performance obligations consist of transaction price that has been allocated to unexercised material rights related to the Company’s arrangements with freelancers subject to tiered service fees, subscriptions, memberships, “Connects” (virtual tokens that allow freelancers to bid on projects on the Company’s platform), and certain incentive payments made to the Company by payment processors. As of June 30, 2020, the Company expects to recognize approximately $15.0 million over the next 12 months, with the remaining balance recognized thereafter.
The Company has applied the practical expedients and exemptions and does not disclose the value of remaining performance obligations for (i) contracts with an original expected length of one year or less; and (ii) contracts for which the variable consideration is allocated entirely to a wholly unsatisfied promise to transfer a distinct service that forms part of a single performance obligation under the series guidance.
Contract Balances
The following table provides information about the balances of the Company’s trade and client receivables, net of allowance and contract liabilities included in deferred revenue and other liabilities, noncurrent (in thousands):
June 30, 2020December 31, 2019
Trade and client receivables, net of allowance$33,230  $30,156  
Contract liabilities
Deferred revenue14,984  13,799  
Deferred revenue (component of other liabilities, noncurrent)3,552  3,153  
During the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, changes in the contract liabilities balances were a result of normal business activity, deferral of revenue related to arrangements with freelancers subject to tiered service fees and related allocation of transaction price to material rights, and a change in estimate related to the period of time over which to recognize the consideration allocated to the material rights.
Revenue recognized during the three and six months ended June 30, 2020 that was included in deferred revenue as of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019 was $4.9 million and $8.0 million, respectively. Revenue recognized during the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 that was included in deferred revenue as of March 31, 2019 and January 1, 2019 was $3.6 million and $6.2 million, respectively.

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Note 4—Fair Value Measurements
The Company defines fair value as the exchange price that would be received from the sale of an asset or paid to transfer a liability in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Valuation techniques used to measure fair value must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. The authoritative guidance describes three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value:
Level I—Observable inputs that reflect unadjusted quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in active markets;
Level II—Observable inputs other than Level I prices, such as unadjusted quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets, unadjusted quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities; and
Level III—Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities. These inputs are based on the Company’s own assumptions used to measure assets and liabilities at fair value and require significant management judgment or estimation.
The categorization of a financial instrument within the fair value hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to its fair value measurement. The Company’s assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires management to make judgments and consider factors specific to the assets or liabilities.
The Company’s financial instruments that are carried at fair value consist of Level I and Level II assets as of June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019. The following tables set forth the fair value of the Company’s financial assets measured at fair value on a recurring basis based on the three-tier fair value hierarchy (in thousands):

June 30, 2020
Level ILevel IILevel IIITotal
Cash equivalents—money market funds$59,832  $  $  $59,832  
Marketable securities
Commercial paper  44,876    44,876  
U.S. government securities24,730      24,730  
Total financial assets$84,562  $44,876  $  $129,438  

December 31, 2019
Level ILevel IILevel IIITotal
Cash equivalents—money market funds$35,286  $  $  $35,286  
Marketable securities
Commercial paper  50,794    50,794  
U.S. government securities34,687      34,687  
Total financial assets$69,973  $50,794  $  $120,767  
For each of the three and six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, the gross unrealized gains and losses on the Company’s marketable securities were immaterial. As of June 30, 2020 and 2019, the Company considered any decreases in market value to be temporary in nature and did not consider any of the Company’s marketable securities to be other-than-temporarily impaired. As such, the Company did not record any impairment charges with respect to its marketable securities during each of the three and six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019.

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As of June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, the Company had debt obligations outstanding of $14.5 million and $18.3 million, respectively, under the Company’s Loan and Security Agreement, as amended (the “Loan Agreement”). As of June 30, 2020, the carrying value approximated fair value as borrowings under the Loan Agreement bore interest at variable rates, and the Company believes its credit risk quality is consistent with when the debt was originated. The Company considered the balances outstanding under the Loan Agreement to be Level II liabilities as of June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019. See “Note 7—Debt.”

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Note 5—Balance Sheet Components
Cash and Cash Equivalents, Restricted Cash, and Funds Held In Escrow, Including Funds In Transit
The following table reconciles cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, and funds held in escrow that are restricted as reported in the condensed consolidated balance sheets to the total of the same amounts shown in the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows as of June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019 (in thousands):
June 30, 2020December 31, 2019
Cash and cash equivalents$76,755  $48,392  
Restricted cash2,740  2,490  
Funds held in escrow, including funds in transit129,553  108,721  
Total cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash as shown in the condensed consolidated statement of cash flows$209,048  $159,603  
Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment, net consisted of the following (in thousands):
June 30, 2020December 31, 2019
Computer equipment and software$4,664  $3,613  
Internal-use software and platform development16,027  12,726  
Leasehold improvements14,597  10,576  
Office furniture and fixtures3,354  2,454  
Total property and equipment38,642  29,369  
Less: accumulated depreciation(11,358) (7,915) 
Property and equipment, net$27,284  $21,454  
For the three months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, depreciation expense related to property and equipment was $0.8 million and $0.6 million, respectively. For the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, depreciation expense related to property and equipment was $1.5 million and $1.4 million, respectively.
For the three months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, the Company capitalized $1.7 million and $1.4 million of internal-use software and platform development costs, respectively. For the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, the Company capitalized $3.3 million and $2.5 million of internal-use software and platform development costs, respectively.
For the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, amortization expense related to the capitalized internal-use software and platform development costs was $1.1 million and $2.0 million, respectively. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, amortization expense related to the capitalized internal-use software and platform development costs was immaterial.
Intangible Assets, Net
All of the Company’s identifiable intangible assets were acquired in March 2014 from the Elance-oDesk Combination. For each of the three months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, amortization expense of intangible assets was $0.7 million. For each of the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, amortization expense of intangible assets was $1.3 million. Amortization expense is included in general and administrative expenses.


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Accrued Expenses and Other Current Liabilities
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities consisted of the following (in thousands):
 June 30, 2020December 31, 2019
Accrued compensation and related benefits$7,245  $5,344  
Accrued freelancer costs1,552  622  
Accrued indirect taxes2,044  2,401  
Accrued vendor expenses9,720  5,485  
Accrued payment processing fees837  832  
Operating lease liability, current3,053  3,214  
Other913  444  
Total accrued expenses and other current liabilities$25,364  $18,342  
In February 2020, the Company made changes to its organizational structure to better align with its business strategies and streamline the delivery of its end-to-end user experiences. During the six months ended June 30, 2020, the Company incurred and paid $1.6 million related to these initiatives.
Operating Leases
On January 1, 2020, the Company commenced an operating lease of one additional floor in its Chicago, Illinois office. As a result, the Company recognized a $1.7 million operating lease asset and $1.7 million operating lease liability on January 1, 2020, which are included in operating lease asset and operating lease liability, noncurrent, respectively, on the condensed consolidated balance sheet as of June 30, 2020. The lease has an initial term of five years with the option to renew for an additional five years at the end of the initial lease term. Total minimum lease payments under the initial term are $2.1 million. For the initial measurement of the present value of the lease payments associated with this lease, the Company used its incremental borrowing rate, which is a collateralized rate and approximates the rate at which the Company could borrow, on a secured basis for a similar term, an amount equal to its lease payments in a similar economic environment.
The Company includes lease payments associated with renewal options in its operating lease asset and liability only when it becomes reasonably certain that the Company will exercise the renewal option. The Company has not included renewal options for any of its operating leases in its determination of lease liabilities as of June 30, 2020.

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Note 6—Commitments and Contingencies
Letters of Credit
In conjunction with the operating lease agreements, as of June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, the Company had three irrevocable letters of credit outstanding in the aggregate amounts of $1.0 million and $0.8 million, respectively. No amounts had been drawn against these letters of credit as of June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019.
Contingencies
The Company accrues contingent liabilities when it is probable that future expenditures will be made and such expenditures can be reasonably estimated. From time to time in the normal course of business, various claims and litigation have been asserted or commenced. Due to uncertainties inherent in litigation and other claims, the Company can give no assurance that it will prevail in any such matters, which could subject the Company to significant liability or damages. Any claims or litigation could have an adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial position, results of operations, or cash flows in or following the period that claims or litigation are resolved.
As of June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, the Company was not a party to any material legal proceedings or claims, nor is the Company aware of any pending or threatened litigation or claims that could reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on its business, operating results, cash flows, or financial condition. Accordingly, the Company has determined that the existence of a material loss as of these dates is neither probable nor reasonably possible.
Indemnification
The Company has indemnification agreements with its officers, directors, and certain key employees to indemnify them while they are serving in good faith in their respective positions. In the ordinary course of business, the Company enters into contractual arrangements under which it agrees to provide indemnification of varying scope and terms to clients, business partners, vendors, and other parties, including, but not limited to, losses arising out of the Company’s breach of such agreements, claims related to potential data or information security breaches, intellectual property infringement claims made by third parties, and other liabilities relating to or arising from the Company’s products and services or its acts or omissions. In addition, subject to the terms of the applicable agreement, as part of the Company’s Upwork Enterprise offering, the Company indemnifies clients that subscribe to worker classification services for losses arising from worker misclassification. It is not possible to determine the maximum potential loss under these indemnification provisions due to the Company’s limited history of prior indemnification claims and the facts and circumstances involved in each particular provision.

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Note 7—Debt
The following table presents the carrying value of the Company’s debt obligations as of June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019 (in thousands):
 June 30, 2020December 31, 2019
First Term Loan—18 months of interest-only payments ended in March 2019 followed by 36 equal monthly installments of principal plus interest, maturing March 2022; interest at prime plus 0.25% per annum
$8,750  $11,250  
Second Term Loan—17 months of interest-only payments ended in March 2019 followed by 42 equal monthly installments of principal plus interest, maturing September 2022; interest at prime plus 0.25% per annum
5,785  7,071  
Total debt14,535